It all depends on the browser, actually. Just face it: not all browsers (or maybe even: no browser) goes 100% with the standards set. By standard protocol, browsers should cache permanent redirects and should not cache temporary ones. Again, "should" is used loosely.
And even then, by standard protocol, there are exceptions in where browsers (or more generally: user-agents) may cache the temporary redirects. With all the caching and proxying going on, I'm not sure how much of this is truly true.
(If you want the technical document, you should refer to RFC 2616